Romanticism reassessed the relationship between man and the elements. Rochester is a Romantic hero in that he is flawed and open to his emotions.
Jane Eyre: AS & A2
This was a period of religious argument. The references to the beliefs of Helen Burns and St John Rivers were very topical at that time.
We can see the influence of the Gothic literary movement in descriptions of Thornfield Hall and in references to madness and the supernatural.
Colonialism and the rising power of the British Empire is an important backdrop to the novel, as suggested by references to Madeira and the West Indies.
Women at this time still could not own property, vote or receive higher education. Jane strives for some kind of independence despite this.