In an essential plot element of the novel, both Pip and Estella have parental figures who are not their biological parents.
Great Expectations (Grades 9–1)
London is seen as the place of ‘great expectations’, but also as an impersonal place of cruelty and ruined dreams and poverty.
is one of the greatest Victorian novels which explores many aspects of human behaviour and Victorian society both at its best and worst.
Dickens was an educational reformer and campaigner and this novel presents the importance of literacy and learning.
Pride causes Pip to treat Joe and Biddy badly, which he comes to regret, and drives Miss Havisham to madness after she is rejected.